What Is Pyruvate?
Pyruvate is a
stabilized form of pyruvic acid and naturally occurs in the body. Pyruvate is
the foundation of the Krebs, or Citric Acid, Cycle. This Cycle, further
explained below, is the process through which the body converts Glycogen to
Energy. Or, more simply, it is how the body burns sugar and starch. Thus,
Pyruvate plays a crucial role in this conversion of food to energy.
For What Is Pyruvate
of Pyruvate increases cellular respiration, or the amount of energy the
mitochondria (the cells' metabolic furnace) use. The more energy used, the less
the body stores. In addition, Pyruvate has been known to lower cholesterol
levels, increase endurance and benefit weight management.
Are There Any Side Effects
Pyruvate is 100%
safe; it naturally occurs in the body as an end-product of the metabolism of
sugar or starch. Supplementation with Pyruvate has been found to increase the
metabolism, accelerating the burning of sugar and starch. The only side-effects
observed from mega-doses of Pyruvate have been gastric distress (gas; a natural
byproduct of digestion)--and this is from doses 10 times the recommended dosage.
The Krebs Cycle Explained
*Note that for every turn of
the Krebs Cycle:
- There are ten steps to the
Krebs Cycle. It takes 2 turns of the Krebs Cycle to metabolize each glycogen
bond of acetyl CoA breaks, and the two-carbon acetyl group bonds to the
four-carbon oxaloacetic acid to form six-carbon citric acid.
- Two major events occur
during this step: Isocitric acid loses carbon dioxide leaving a five-carbon
molecule and the five-carbon compound is oxidized, reducing NAD+.
- A multienzyme complex
catalyzes: the removal of carbon dioxide, the oxidation of the remaining
four-carbon compound, reduction of NAD+, and the attachment of CoA with a high
energy bond to form succinyl CoA.
- Substrate level
phosphorylation occurs in a series of enzyme catalyzed reactions: the high
energy bond in succinyl-CoA breaks, and some energy is conserved as CoA is
displaced by a phosphate group. The phosphate group is transferred to GDP to
form GTP and succinic acid. GTP donates a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP.
- Succinic acid is oxidized
to fumaric acid and FAD is reduced: Two hydrogens are transferred to FAD to form
FADH2 (FADH2 stores less energy than NADH.) The dehydrogenase that catalyzes
this reaction is bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane.
- Water is added to fumaric
acid which rearranges its chemical bonds to form malic acid.
- Malic acid is oxidized and
NAD is reduced.
- A molecule of NADH is
- Oxaloacetic acid is
regenerated to begin the cycle again.
Summary: To put all of this chemistry (which is admittedly
difficult to follow) into laypersons' terms, the faster the Krebs Cycle turns,
the more energy (ATP) a person has, and the more calories they burn. And,
Pyruvate makes the Krebs Cycle run faster.
- Two carbons enter in the
acetyl fragment of Acetyl CoA.
- Two different carbons leave
as carbon dioxide.
- Coenzymes are reduced;
three NADH and one FADH2 are produced.
- One ATP molecule is
produced by substrate level phosphorylation.
- Oxaloacetic acid is
- For every glucose molecule
split during glycolysis, two acetyl fragments are produced. Thus, it takes two
turns of the cycle to complete the oxidation of glucose.
- Reduced coenzymes produced
by the Krebs Cycle (6 NADH and 2 FADH2 per glucose) carry high energy electrons
to the electron transport chain where ATP is produced by chemiosmosis. Most of
the ATP output of respiration results from this oxidative phosphorylation.